Ovarian Cysts: Symptoms & Treatment
An ovarian cyst is a fluid- or semisolid-filled sac that develops on, inside of, or near one or both of your ovaries. Your ovaries are tiny organs in your pelvis that store egg cells and produce oestrogen and progesterone, among other hormones.
Ovarian cysts come in a variety of forms, and the majority are painless and benign. Ovarian cysts typically don’t have any symptoms. Unless your doctor discovers one while doing a standard pelvic exam or imaging treatment, you probably won’t be aware that you have one.
What are the types of ovarian cysts?
The majority of ovarian cysts are functional cysts. They develop in response to the changes in your body that occur during the menstrual cycle. Ovarian cysts can develop for reasons unrelated to menstruation, however, this is less common.
The most typical type of ovarian cyst is a functional cyst, which is unrelated to any disease. They are brought on by ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovary). These cysts may indicate that your ovaries are working properly. Without specialised therapy, functional cysts often decrease with time—typically within 60 days.
- Follicular cysts: Each month as part of your menstrual cycle, an egg is released from a tiny sac in your ovary called a follicle. A follicular cyst develops when a follicle fails to release an egg. Instead, the follicle enlarges and becomes more fluid-filled.
- Corpus luteum cysts: The corpus luteum is a cluster of cells that produces hormones after the follicle releases an egg. When fluid builds up in the corpus luteum, it grows and creates a cyst.
Ovarian cysts do not always develop in response to your menstrual cycle. Although they don’t usually indicate a sickness, your doctor may want to keep an eye on them to make sure issues don’t arise. They consist of the following:
- Cystadenomas: These cysts develop on your ovary’s surface. They may be filled with thin, watery or thicker, mucous-like fluid.
- Endometriomas: Endometrial tissue, which is the same tissue from which you bleed each month during your period, fills these cysts.
- Dermoid cysts: Dermoid cysts are made up of cells that make up many different kinds of bodily tissue, including skin, hair, teeth, and even brain tissue.
- Ovarian cancer: Ovarian cancer cysts (tumours) are solid masses of cancer cells, in contrast to the symptoms mentioned above.
What causes an ovarian cyst?
The primary cause of ovarian cysts is ovulation. Additional factors include:
- Endometriosis: When endometriosis is developed, these cysts frequently develop on the ovary.
- Abnormal cell reproduction: Dermoids and cystadenomas are examples of cysts that can develop due to atypical cell proliferation.
- Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): Cysts can develop in your ovaries as a result of severe pelvic infections.
What are the signs and symptoms of an ovarian cyst?
The symptoms of certain smaller cysts are absent. You might not even be aware of having a cyst in these circumstances. Bigger cyst size may result in:
- Bloating or a sense of fullness in your lower belly that may be more noticeable on one side of your body.
- Backache or pain in the pelvis.
- Pain during intercourse.
- Painful periods.
How is an ovarian cyst diagnosed?
- Ultrasound: In this imaging method, sound waves are used to produce images of the internal organs in your body. It can locate and determine the predominant fluid or solid nature of cysts on your ovaries.
- A pelvic exam: Your doctor or nurse will check your pelvis for abnormalities or changes.
- Laparoscopy: Your medical doctor can see your reproductive organs and pelvic cavity by inserting a camera through an abdominal incision (cut). Your doctor can remove a cyst if one is identified at this time.
What are the treatment options for ovarian cysts?
Your age, as well as the kind and size of your cyst, will affect your treatment. Your symptoms will also play a role. Your doctor might advise you to:
Medicine: Birth control tablets and other hormonal contraceptives prevent you from ovulating. This could prevent the development of ovarian cysts. But, using contraceptives won’t make an existing cyst go away.
Surgery: In cases where a cyst is huge, doesn’t appear to be a functional cyst, is expanding, or hurts, your doctor may advise removal. Without removing the ovary, some cysts can be treated (cystectomy). Sometimes, the ovary containing the cyst is removed (oophorectomy).
If you’re looking for the best hospital to get treated, you can always reach out to us. Ferticity IVF & Fertility Clinics is one of the best IVF & fertility centres in Delhi. To book an appointment, call us at +91 9910 1206 74.