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How are test tube baby produced? Step by step process

A test-tube baby is a child who is conceived outside the female body. A more complete definition specifies test tube babies as being made in a laboratory through the scientific process of In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) and grown in the mother’s womb. In a petri dish, the sperm and eggs are combined to start the procedure. However, despite being a well-known term, “test-tube baby” continues to confuse couples seeking medical help for infertility issues.

When is a Test tube baby essential?

Test tube baby is required when the couple is unable to conceive naturally in spite of regular unprotected intercourse for a year. Few indications of  test tube baby are:

  • When there is no ovulation
  • When there is some problem with the egg.
  • When there is damage to both or one of the fallopian tubes.
  • When a premature ovarian failure takes place.
  • When the woman has severe endometriosis.
  • When the male partner has insufficient sperm.
  • When either one or both partners have any kind of sexual dysfunction.
  • When intrauterine insemination fails.

What is the step by step process of a test tube baby?

Step 1: Hormone Therapy And Egg Production

The first step in the test tube baby process is to encourage the growth of eggs inside the female’s body. Mainly, Gonadotropins and GnRHa, two injectable, medically prescribed hormones, are used to do this. The female receives these injectable hormones in a titrated dose, which cause the follicles already existing in her ovaries to develop and mature. hCG injection is used to complete the final stage of egg maturation. Egg collection is done  36 hours after receiving injection hCG.

Step 2: Eggs Retrieval

After hormone therapy, the next step is to collect  the eggs from the body using a minor surgical procedure. To minimize any potential discomfort, the procedure is done under general or local anesthesia. The eggs are retrieved  using a vaginal ultrasonography probe with an attached needle. The needle is inserted in each ovary and fluid from all formed follicles are aspirated. The fluid is seen under the microscope to identify the eggs, which are then kept in a petri dish in a specialized media in the incubator.

Step 3: Sperm Collection

The day the eggs are retrieved from the female’s body, the male also has to submit a fresh sample of semen. This is needed because the following, and most important, stage in the creation of a test-tube baby requires the collection of both sperm and eggs.

Step 4: Petri Dish

The mixing of the collected sperm and eggs in a petri dish is one of the most crucial procedures in the entire test tube baby procedure. The petri dish is stored in an incubator after the sperm and eggs have been combined. The specialist examines the mixture to look for any evidence of fertilization the next day and also keeps track of the development of the embryo in following days. This is necessary to make sure the embryo is growing well and to ascertain that embryo is ready for the transfer to the uterus.

Step 5: Final Transfer to Uterus

Transferring the prepared embryos into the uterus completes the process of creating a test tube baby. A very fine catheter is used to transfer one to three distinct embryos to the woman’s uterus. Hormonal support is given after the embryo transfer to support the possible pregnancy.

However, 14 days following the embryo transfer procedure, blood beta HCG levels are checked to see if you’re pregnant. For a single embryo transfer cycle during a test tube pregnancy, the success rate is up to 50 %, and for three embryo transfer cycles, the success rate is a cumulative 85–90%. However, the success rate depends on numerous factors and varies from couple to couple. 

Who Should Consider IVF Treatment?

Any couple who has tried to get pregnant for a year and been unsuccessful should think about getting fertility treatments. It is crucial that they speak with a fertility specialist in order to accurately diagnose the cause of their infertility and receive the appropriate care. 

If you are someone who is looking for a fertility expert or any infertility treatment, call us at +91 9910120674/+91-11-45890000.