Conception: What is it and how does it happen?

Conception: What is it and how does it happen?

Menstruation and conception are closely connected processes. The series of events that take place in your body each month as it gets ready for the potential of pregnancy is known as a menstrual cycle. Ovulation occurs during the menstrual cycle in both women.

Your ovary releases an egg for fertilisation during ovulation. Fimbriae, which resemble little fingers, aid in guiding the egg through your fallopian tubes and into your uterus. An egg may become fertilised by a sperm during this passage through your fallopian tubes.

In the testicles of men, sperm production begins. Millions of sperm cells are released during ejaculation with the sole intent of locating an egg to fertilise. Sperm cells swim up through your vagina and into your fallopian tubes during unprotected sex.

Only one sperm manages to fertilise an egg despite millions of sperm competing to reach and enter the egg. Eggs disintegrate if sperm cannot fertilise them.

A fertilised egg, also known as a zygote, continues to travel down your fallopian tube if a sperm is successful in its attempt to fertilise an egg. As it does so, it divides into two cells, then four cells, and then more cells as it travels. The zygote has arrived in your uterus about a week after the sperm and egg were fertilised. It has developed into a blastocyst, a developing collection of roughly 100 cells.

After that, the blastocyst attaches to the uterine lining (the endometrium). Implantation describes this process of attachment. Yet, only because conception takes place does not guarantee implantation. Occasionally, implantation fails, and the fertilised egg is passed during your subsequent menstrual cycle.

If implantation occurs, the cells keep dividing; some become your baby while others become the placenta. You start to exude hormones that alert your body that a child is developing inside your womb. These hormones also instruct the uterus to keep its lining in place as opposed to shedding it. This implies that you won’t get a period, which may be how you find out you are pregnant for the first time.

In a 28-day menstrual cycle, getting pregnant involves the following steps:

Day 1: your first day of menstruation.

Around day 14: Ovulation.

Within 24 hours of ovulation: An egg is fertilised by sperm (conception occurs).

About six days after fertilization: The ovum that has been fertilised grows inside your uterus.

Around day 21: You are pregnant if conception and implantation have been placed during this menstrual cycle. However, it can take a further five to seven days to get a positive pregnancy test.

A fertilised egg moves from conception through your fallopian tubes to your uterus. The fertilised egg, also known as an embryo, implants (attaches) to the uterine wall. The placenta begins to develop as a result. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) starts to be produced by your placenta and released into your urine and blood. Around 11 days following pregnancy, HCG can be seen in a person’s blood. With home pregnancy tests, hCG takes a little longer to appear (that measure hCG in pee).

How does conception work with IVF?

The process of conception still requires the fertilisation of an egg by sperm. However, sperm fertilises an egg in a lab during in vitro fertilisation (IVF). A parent’s or a donor’s sperm is combined with an egg, either from the intended parent or a donor. When the sperm fertilises the egg, conception occurs.

After conception, your healthcare professional implants the embryo into the uterus.

What circumstances make it impossible to conceive?

Your ability to get pregnant may be impacted by specific medical issues. The mere contact of the sperm and egg does not guarantee fertilisation. Among the most typical ones are:

  • you are not ovulating (this is anovulation).
  • difficulties with sperm motility or low sperm count.
  • an obstruction in the fallopian tubes, ovaries, or testicles.
  • decreasing the supply of high-quality sperm and eggs.
  • difficulty in the penetration of sperm into the egg.
  • Thin endometrial lining or lining not being receptive.


Sperm fertilising an egg is known as conception. It’s one of several essential processes to becoming pregnant. Conception is a difficult process that is influenced by numerous variables. There are several options available to assist you if you’re having trouble getting pregnant. If you’re having trouble getting pregnant, talk to your doctor. In addition to describing the procedure, they can point out any obstacles to conceiving and becoming pregnant.